瑶族历史悠久,文化灿烂,宗教深受道教影响。 中国现代瑶教研究始于20世纪20年代至1940年代对西南边疆的民族调查。 我国早期人类学家杨承志、蒋应良、梁兆涛等人在对广东北江瑶族、粤北乳源瑶族的考察和徐以棠对瑶族的考察中,关注了瑶族的宗教信仰。在广西襄平。 从他的论着中,他得出瑶教已转化为道教的结论。 瑶教杜戒,又称杜神、杜法、过法、斋刀、大刀论,是瑶族青年男子必经的宗教仪式,在瑶教中颇具特色。 国内外有关瑶教的论着几乎都谈到了瑶族的戒律。 对20世纪50年代广西瑶族社会历史的调查是由著名人类学家杨承志教授进行的。 在当时的条件下,尽可能多地收集了有关瑶族宗教信仰的资料,包括瑶族受戒的内容,这是关于瑶族受戒的。 最重要的记录。 《广西瑶族社会历史调查》作为田野调查成果的汇编,于20世纪80年代编撰出版,至今仍受到国内外学者的重视。 当代瑶族学者张友军指出:“几乎普遍存在的挂灯戒戒活动,也是瑶族宗教信仰的特点之一。” 也就是说,戒律活动深受道教的影响。

一、瑶族戒律与道教教义的关系

广西十万大山是瑶族聚居地。 这里山势起伏,山高林密。 地处亚热带,濒临北部湾。 每年都会遭受台风袭击,雨量充沛。 对于生活在大瑶山区的瑶族和瑶族社会来说,受戒仪式是瑶族重要的宗教活动。 瑶族各支系男子年满十五、十六岁,必须举行受戒仪式。 瑶男子一生有三件大事:守誓、成家、燃魂,其中守誓尤为重要。 渡劫的男弟子(查山耀称辛恩)经历了这一人生转变,他的社会角色和地位也发生了变化。 从此,他可以结婚成家,并获得了参加社会活动的权利。 这就是度戒在世俗生活中的意义。 作为瑶族社会常见的过渡仪式,受戒仪式也具有深刻的宗教意义:师父圆寂后,师父将被列入仙册,灵魂可以进入神界,象征着向神界的升华。超凡脱俗的宗教领域; 受戒也是对道教的提升。 天梯上,只有出家的人,才能学习道功、师功的法术,获得法师传教救人的资格。

道教在其创立和发展的各个时期都十分注重在少数民族中的传播。 在中国南方少数民族中,瑶族受道教影响最大。 魏晋时期,瑶族的祖先就已经接受了道教。 早期,正一向瑶族祖先传道。 它吸收了瑶族的授瓮仪式,演变成为具有瑶族特色的受戒仪式。 瑶族道教之所以能长久传承、得以沿袭而不取代,取决于民族道德行为活动所形成的宗教传统。 早期正道教义的教义思想成为瑶族受戒的理论基础。

广西十万大山瑶族认为,受戒的人死后可以升天成仙,不受戒的人死后会变成野鬼。 这种超度、永生的思想来源于道教。 《东玄灵宝教法》云:“生无道身,死为鬼。” 按照正道早期的教义,只有接受道教的人才能获得道教身份。 瑶族出家,需要给上师起法号。 有了法名,才能纳入家训,享受子孙的祭祀和供养。 因此,瑶族年轻人受戒就意味着获得了道教身份,成为道仙。 道教中所谓的民族,就是皈依道的人。 根据道教的经典法典体系,必须向所有人传授正确的教义。 道教中曾经流行过一种读书仪式。 仪式上,骨灰盒内的神兵受邀检阅族人所佩戴的正一法,以显示其保护骨灰盒受赠者的力量。 《正一修真洛依》论述经义的意义:“世人受道经戒,仰慕文字,即使不依法修行,也不再是鬼,转世成仙,与道有缘。” 道教宣称正一法是学道者应持守的准则,是修真入道的阶梯。

广西十万大山瑶族解释杜戒:做杜戒者,有神兵保护,不怕邪灵。 没有杜劫的,都是白身,不受神兵保护。 出家仪式时,师父会赐予师父“法宝”。 这些法宝被写在教义中,从此成为主人家族的守护神。 广西大班瑶认为:“只有经过生命的人,才能得到法宝的保护,也能用法宝来救人。” 挂灯仪式包括挂三盏灯、挂七盏灯、挂十二盏大灯。 不同等级,瑶族相信挂灯的等级越高,获得的法宝就越多,能够更好地抵御邪灵的攻击。 不同等级的挂灯仪式,奖励不同数量的神兵。 国外学者对此有不同的解释。 法国学者Jacques Lemoine认为,悬挂三盏灯可得三十六神兵,悬挂七星灯可得七十二神兵。 两种“大师”的地位是不同的。 获得六十一百二十件法宝。 日本学者白鸟义郎认为,瑶族第一次挂灯仪式可以得到30名神兵,第二次挂灯仪式可以得到60名神兵,第三次挂灯仪式可以得到120名神兵。 姓名。 挂灯笼获得的法宝数量差异,实际上是由于瑶族不同支系的戒律传承差异造成的。 例如,在云南金平瑶族的渡劫中,“挂三盏灯笼,男子可三十五兵马护,女子二十四兵马护。”挂七盏灯笼,男子可用七十五兵马保护,女子可用七十五兵马保护。” 他们有三十五名兵马保护。 如果他们持杜阿戒,那就更不一样了。 男子可用一百二十兵马护卫,女子可用六十兵马护护。”悬挂十二盏大灯笼称为渡戒,渡戒又称为投牌。道家所讲的正一法中,有:是法中的将士、将士,其职责是保护法受者。《太上三五正一盟韦岳聚解礼》云:“将士各有其职。 护臣身体,安神养神,久久调宫。 三尸倒下,诸灾尽除,五脏六腑尽除。 病,乃是相貌衰弱。”道家的正一法分为二十四重,每一种法都可以降伏不同的鬼神。

《道功经》《智索度劫克》认为,受戒者,可名列仙书,超凡成圣,救度世间苦难,消除灾难。 《要经》中关于救戒作用的解释,都可以在《道经》中找到。 早期道教经典中,对封瓮的意义有明确的解释。 《正一修行简》云:“修真者,神室清正,能摄天地之灵,制魔降鬼。按其功绩,列于列表。仙台出入,长生不老,与道相合,故能救人于死难,成就大功德,不可不修行、供奉三圣。洞经和金书宝物。” 道教认为最大的功德就是救世救人。 瑶族认为,救人才能救人,而救人是获得救人能力的关键。

瑶族戒律的一些仪式也深受道教斋戒、祭祀仪式的影响。 受戒的瑶族师傅一个月前将进入“吃好”阶段。 “吃梁”期间,必须研读道经,受到瑶道经教的熏陶; 还有“净化身体”的禁食做法,要求每天不发生性行为,洗澡一次。 在正式的救戒仪式(称为“良度”)期间,师父及师父全家必须斋戒、吃素。 瑶师受戒前的“净化”,是道教斋戒法的传承。 道教举行斋戒仪式之前,法师和施主必须斋戒,以净化身心。 早期,三会日的厨房聚会都有斋戒的规定。 南北朝道经《老君阴禅解经》云:“灶会上层斋七日,中层斋三天,下层斋睡一日”。斋法为素,日食米三升,破房,五日,将辣生菜肉全部斩断,精进修行善事,亦不出。 在“吃好饭”期间,瑶族男子必须斋戒素食,独自在专门的房间内打坐修性,不能外出见生人。 世南守禁斋戒期的意义,就是用一个“空白”期作为隔离期,将过去的时间与即将到来的新阶段分开。 作为“空白”期的手段,专门搭建了一间小屋,与人隔离,进行成人训练。 守斋、吃素意味着村庄和个人的清洁。 老师在小屋里的隔离生活象征着新旧阶段的隔离。 总之,我们恪守道教斋戒“不出门”的传统。 《太上正一月论义》云:道士及少数民族受正一法论“须净斋入净”。 经是正一早期修行斋戒的经室。 瑶族大师“吃好饭”时打坐的小屋,其实源于道教打坐的传统。 至于守斋的时间,斋戒时间的长短也因斋戒的大小而异。 《元始天尊说玄经》云:“受尼者,必斋百日,或五十日,或三十日,或二十一日,或十日,或七日。精进信理可教,应教守三行真理,用二皇符,登五斗道,此为地道真道。 ” 道教的斋戒,是内斋心,外斋身; 戒,就是内心保持自己的志向。 ,保持其外部形状。 瑶族的净化斋戒也具有道教斋戒的精神内涵。 瑶族施南斋的文化意义是平日与神圣日子的分离,世俗事务与神圣领域的分离。 通过斋戒来分隔两个不同的领域或领域,象征着市南与旧社会地位的分离。

瑶族举行仪式要选择吉日,具体日期由仪式的主人决定。 一般选择冬季,尤其是过年前。 道教的传法仪式也必须在吉日举行。 《上清骨髓灵文归律》卷云:“凡传正法者,听甲子庚申、三元八戒、乌拉本命日,跪受受之。” 《太上正一乐录一》云:凡受正法者,常择甲子、庚申、本命、三元、五会、乌拉、八戒、会朔等日。 这些天,天气会讲述生活的故事,一切美好的事物都会焕然一新。 天神要下来,地神要出来,水神要出来。 知道了。 瑶族择吉戒日的习俗,明显受到道教择吉戒日传统的影响。 瑶族举行戒律仪式需要设坛,这是道教的设坛方法。 受戒仪式请来唐师、吹丙师、斋丙师、快师、占卜师、金头师、银头师、济源师、卜师、证师、神督师十一位法师主持。 验证者。 瑶族道教典籍的仪轨文献有高老师、李老师、卢老师、袁老师、冯老师、朱老师、黄老师、刘老师、孔老师、冯老师等文字和文字,一般指的是临潭大师。 艺术。 道士由八位先生主持,按职责分三司、五护法。 《正一威经》说,正一受道教权威:“凡立三司五护,发号令,察得失”。 第三主是推荐者、传递者、监督者; 第五主是五城的讲师,他们的职责是协助联盟和戒律。 广西十万大山的单子尧说,度戒三高手是:推荐人、引导老师、最后通牒大师。 他们与正道三高手、渡劫之主有着同样的职责。 广西十万大山茶山瑶的独解包括独师、祖师、引言、帝师和四老,也与八位道祖的性格相符。

广西山子窑是保留较多本民族传统文化的一个分支。 其戒律与戒律的区别在于,除了礼制、程序不同外,两派的名称也各有制度。 道功所授予的法名,取“净”、“印”、“道”、“妙”、“玄”五个字,按辈分轮换。 这就是“道云”的法名。 上师所授的法号由“生”、“贤”、“应”、“法”、“元”五个字组成,也是按照辈分轮换的。 这就是“云大师”的法号。 两派的法名均取自道教教义。 各道教宗派的传承谱系也从道经中选取法名。 《正一威经》说,正一受道权:“登坛受封后,命弟子着法袈裟,传法号。弟子念号时,礼敬师父及十方最高领袖。” 瑶族出家仪式上,师父身着红色法衣,接受师父的道教教导。 道教中最重要的就是法印。 师父传授的法印与道教所传的法印名称不同。 道祖教弟子的是玉皇印,师父教弟子的是上元印。 道教的封神仪式还传授法印,法印是修行道教佛法的基础。 《正一威经》说,正一受道威:“师受授都章笔印时,四部禁制,不受者报印而跑”。符咒,禁止炼丹,神灵不听则不听规矩,收下吧。道教印章的种类很多,各个道观都有印章,各种仪式中使用的印章都是正一印为独章辟印,尧师祀上、中、下三行,道师祀玉皇大帝,尧师印的名称是以其师尊所祀的神祇而得名。 《灵宝玉鉴》卷一《印用论》云:“至于瓮后之印,为判事时所用。”名称的修改瑶族的封印戒律实际上是以道教经典为依据的。

瑶族在给上师授法名的同时,还给上师传授两本阴阳戒。 阴牒由师父和道士宣读,然后就地焚烧,以提醒神灵; 阴牒由师父保管,死后与师父一起焚烧埋葬。 师父、道士为得救戒者举行“赴死仪式”时,必须焚烧阳牒,以表明持戒者已离开尘世,可以凭阳牒升仙。 元代无名者所著的《胡海辛须一鉴志》卷一记载:“少武郡有一女子,到龙虎山参加九真戒。” 那女子后来死了,但半天后又回来了。 她告诉家人,在她升天之前,要把她收到的经文烧掉。 这个奇特的故事真实地反映了道家的烧法。 按照正道的教义,道士出世后,必须焚烧法瓮,让死者的灵魂升入仙界,得道成佛。 瑶族的烧阳习俗显然源自道教科学和法律的传统。

瑶族祭祀仪式最有特色的就是挂灯笼。 受戒的程序分为挂三灯、七灯、挂十二大灯、升爵、加五品。 日本学者竹村卓治将戒律分为挂灯、斋戒、加业、加太四个层次。 张友军《十万大山瑶族道教信仰简述》认为,十万大山板腰的挂灯仪式实际上分为挂三星、挂七星、挂九星、挂四类。十二颗星。 挂三灯是指放置三盏带把手的台灯。 仪式期间,大师们围着三盏灯祈祷。 挂七盏灯,就是点燃七星烛台,象征天上的北斗七星。 挂灯仪式时,出家的法师提着灯笼坐在堂上。 师父一人诵念《药经》,几位法师围着灯笼结成法盟。 法国学者Jacques Lemoine指出,持戒者有经济实力,可以直接挂大灯笼,而不必过前两关。 大罗灯之名来源于道教经典中的大罗天,即三界中诸天之上的神界。

瑶族挂灯笼与道教崇拜星象有关。 广西大坂瑶的《盘王歌》中有一位抽三灯的神歌。 神歌《善意赏赐书》云:“三盏七星银灯,护佑生命。” 三太指的是北斗三颗星,负责延年益寿、带来吉祥、消除灾难。 道教对三颗七星灯有一定的魔力,有“百分之三十的灯,百分之七十的斗”的说法,这是瑶族道教挂三星灯和七星灯的方法的基础。 – 星星灯。 瑶族的《盘王歌》中,有画七盏灯神的歌声。 第七盏灯的歌词是:

拉起第七盏破军灯,七颗星星照亮了小主人的手。

庐山九郎前来说法,师父讲解了佛法的由来。

瑶族受戒仪式上悬挂的七颗星,来自于道教星主长寿的思想。 《正一威经》说,正一受道庄仪:“师受二十八星七星,若不受,天上星官不臣服。”使你延年益寿,受之者名为天官,其命得以保全,寿命得以延年。若祈求星官,听从星官的吩咐,他会开悟成仙,天门会自动打开。” 《太上赤纹洞神三带》云:“凡赐瓮,可长生不老,七日七夜,烧香点七星灯祭祀。” 灯笼挂起来象征天上的星星,所以也叫星灯。 《太上东神太元合图三元阳谢礼》记载了道教铭灯,二十八宿、七曜、北斗九皇爷分别悬挂着各自的灯笼。 瑶族挂灯艺术是道教挂灯仪式的演变。 瑶族挂灯将仪式与灯礼合二为一,丰富了仪式的内容。 戒律仪式是用来表达、践行甚至肯定道教信仰的行为,而道教信仰又强化了仪式,使戒律仪式行为变得更加有意义。 道教斋戒用的礼灯自成一类,瑶族挂灯与道教灯的关系值得专门讨论。 总之,渡戒作为瑶族道教的传承仪式,源于道教的教义。

道教文化资料库_九真道教文化网_道教文化网页/

2、瑶族十诫源自道教经典

瑶族社会的受戒仪式源于早期的正道受戒传统。 清代以来,瑶区地方志多记载瑶族青年的死亡。 清代姚监之所著的《连山随瑶堂志》卷四《风俗》记载:“瑶道自有教义,亦有科学礼法,其义不可解。善者者。”学时随诸道受瓓,受瓓者穿红衣。” 民国时期凌锡华所著的《连山县志》卷五《瑶俗》记载,聪明的瑶族子弟向瑶族道士学习礼仪。 三郎,其妻亦以红布为髻。”瑶族道教礼制文献中云:“包恩施为师,威严太高”,“三清殿中,皆有兵士”。可见,在瑶区文献和瑶族文献中,对瑶族赠瓮的事仍有明确的记载,瑶族一般将赠篓称为杜戒,因为这是赠瓮仪式中的重要礼节。篮子是宣戒,故瑶族俗称“送篮子”为“度戒”。

在瑶族的传福授福仪式中,必须向受礼者宣戒,这是传福的重要组成部分。 瑶族受戒仪式中的宣戒是道教宗教仪式中不可缺少的项目。 《上清骨髓灵文归律》卷二曰:“弟子相送,向师拱肘,师上坛授戒,饮丹药,露刺、破封、立誓,下一步就是使用秘符文、宣真旨、跪受官职、封剑等。 瑶族戒律分为戒律和道戒,属于师父道士的经典和传统。 瑶族青年可以既受师又受道,也只能选择受教。 其中之一。 如果是经法二统的话,通常是由和师与道士联合进行,师父与道士在同一坛上讲法。 传承戒律又称戒律,是受者遵守宗教道德的规定。 《东玄灵宝教法》云:“瓓,戒律记录性情,止过失,判恶根,生道业,从凡到圣,从始到终,从瓓,然后开始True。” 道士使用的法瓮被视为心灵沟通的信物。 道教骨灰盒必须终生佩戴,才能随时得到神灵的庇护。 瑶族大师应遵守的十戒,写在他们佩戴的阳指上,并由大师盖印。 广西十万大山山子瑶戒律的十戒是:

第一戒,对父母要恭敬、孝顺、养育,不可不忠、不孝、不义、不仁,常以诚信为主,弘扬万物。 是谓本妙戒。

第二戒是克制国王,这叫特殊;

第三戒,不杀生,慈济一切众生,超越味觉,常善昆虫。 这就叫受持真实妙戒。

第四戒,不邪淫,正直处事,远离不洁之物,保持灵气流动,保守秘密不被侵犯。 这就叫持真实妙戒。

第五戒,不偷盗,不诽谤善人,不以才害人,常称赞他人的善行,不诽谤他人的功德。 这就是修真妙戒。

第六戒,不嗔恚,不贪财,不嗔恚,常俭,不骄,不贫,此谓修身妙戒;

第七戒,不欺盗,不害众生,常行暴利,传播阴阳种子,救度众生,称为圆满戒;

第八戒,不骄慢,要真实,不与不善之人交往,视污秽,不结果,住僻处,是名真妙。戒律;

第九戒是不义。 若持戒,多饮酒,多食肉,调和气性,注重补虚。 这就是上升真理妙戒。

第十戒,读经而不解,谈笑急急,观相真宝,内外对应,精进诵读,行为不亲密。

瑶族的戒律、戒律皆为十条,但文章内容各有不同。 广西十万大山瑶族戒律十戒,有不少遗漏和错误,这里暂不讨论。 瑶族戒律的十戒源自道教十戒。 The Ten Precepts are the most basic precepts of Taoism. Due to the different teachings of Taoist schools, the Ten Precepts have many names and slightly different provisions. Among the precepts classics of the Dongzhen, Dongxuan, and Dongshen departments of the Taoist Canon, there are dozens of Taoist scriptures about precepts, with the largest number of precepts reaching 1,200, among which there are some precepts and precepts with different contents. 。 The ten precepts of the Yao people’s precepts in Wenshan, Yunnan are different from the ten precepts of the Yao people’s precepts in Shanzi, Guangxi. This shows that the contents of the ten precepts of the Yao people’s precepts are different due to different ethnic groups of the Yao people. The Ten Commandments of Taoism are the most widely used because they are well detailed, simple and easy to remember. Not only do the Ten Precepts need to be proclaimed when passing down religious rituals, but all kinds of Taoist fasting, rituals and rituals also include the content of observing the Ten Precepts in the religious rituals. The contents of the ten precepts of the Yao people are directly derived from the Nine True Precepts of Taoism. The “Tai Shang Jiu Zhen Miao Precepts, the Golden Savior of Life and the Miao Sutra” records the nine true precepts and said it in the mouth of Yuanshi Tianzun: ” If you can accept and hold the Golden Urn and White Slips, the Nine True Precepts, the Talisman of Immortality, and the True Talisman of Suffering, you will eliminate the great sins of the Nine Netherworlds… If you accept and hold the Nine True Precepts, the Golden Talisman, military disasters will be quieted, and evil spirits will be suppressed. , heaven and man are pleased, and the Xin Kingdom is at peace.” The Yao people’s documents include a white paper ultimatum, which may be related to the gold and white slips. The Nine True Precepts collected in Volume 8 of “Shangqing Lingbao Dafa” written by Ning Quanzhen of the Southern Song Dynasty are: “The first is to respect and give way, to be filial to parents; the second is to be diligent and loyal to the monarch; the third is to not kill, to be kind and save all living beings; the fourth is not to Sexual immorality means staying in the right place; the fifth one is not stealing, and violating one’s own righteousness; the sixth one is not being angry and bullying others; the seventh one is not cheating, trapping thieves and harming good people; the eighth one is not being arrogant, being arrogant and becoming true; the ninth one is not duality. , The precepts are dedicated.” “Yuanshi Talisman to Save Suffering and True Talisman to Gao Ming” says: “These nine true and wonderful precepts can achieve merits and be reborn in heaven, just like telling fate.” Ming Zhou Side’s “Shangqing Lingbao” Volume 34 of “Jidu Dacheng Jinshu” contains a nine-zhen precepts. The nine-zhen precepts are written in the text, and the nine-zhen precepts are called “the door for the household to ascend to the truth, and the support for death.” The third precept among the Ten Precepts of the Yao people in Wenshan, Yunnan is “Do not hide the scriptures and conceal the teachings, the Nine True Precepts.” This is the instruction for male teachers to use the Nine True Precepts to educate the next generation after they become preceptors. In the Ming Dynasty, the real talisman for rescuing suffering was made of yellow silk and red seal script. The Nine True Precepts were written on the back of the talisman, stamped with the Beidi fire bell seal, sealed with green silk silk, and then put into a brocade bag, which was worn by Taoist priests forever. The contemporary Taoist orthodox sect’s engraving ceremony is based on the “Temple of Heaven Jade Grid” text of the engraving conferred by Zhang Tianshi of Longhu Mountain. “Temple of Heaven Jade” is a ceremonial classic that was enshrined in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. There are many versions of this sutra circulating in the world. The more comprehensive one is the one recorded by Zhu Heqing in the 28th year of Guangxu (1902). His teacher Zhang Hongren wrote the preface to this sutra. “The Jade Grid of the Temple of Heaven” contains the content of respecting the “Three Refuges and Nine Precepts” in life. The three refuges are the three treasures of Taoism, scriptures and teachers. The nine precepts are:

One is diligent and loyal to the country, which is the true precept;

Respecting the two and being filial to one’s parents are the first true precepts;

The third is not to kill, but to be kind and save all living beings, which is to uphold the true precepts;

The fourth is not to be sexually immoral, to be in a proper place in things, and to observe the true precepts;

The fifth one is not to steal or to injure oneself by inferring righteousness, which is the precept of keeping truth;

The sixth one is not to be angry and to be aggressive with others, which is the precept of cultivation;

Seventh, do not deceive, and thief traps good deeds, which is the true precept;

Eighth, don’t be arrogant. If your arrogance suddenly becomes true, you will get the true precept;

The nine are non-dual, and they are dedicated to the Tao, which is the true precept.

Comparing the Ten Precepts of the Yao people with the Jiuzhen Miaojie, the first nine of the Ten Precepts come from the Jiuzhen Miaojie, and there is a further interpretation of the Nine Zhenmiaojie, and the content is more suitable for the situation of the Yao society. The tenth precept added is about reading scriptures. Yao Taoism attaches great importance to the teaching of Yao scriptures. During the “eating good” stage of the precepts, the masters must read the scriptures behind closed doors. Some masters can recite all the scriptures used in rituals. 。 One difference worth noting is that the content of the first precept of the Nine True Precepts, “One must be diligent and loyal to the country,” was changed to the second precept among the Yao people’s ten precepts; while the second precept of the Nine True Precepts, “Be respectful of both.” , the content of “filial piety and nurturing parents” has been established as the first commandment of the Yao people’s Ten Commandments. This change in the order of provisions has profound anthropological significance: in ancient times, the Yao people lived in the mountains and farmed, and in a relatively closed society, the ethics of respecting and caring for the elderly was more important. The legal significance of the stone tablets in the Yao area lists “you have to take care of your elders when you have something to do” as the first article, and the township covenant lists “you must not be disobedient, unfilial, or disrespectful to your elders” as the first prohibition. The ten precepts of the Yao people’s precepts are unwritten laws, and the men who do the precepts must strictly abide by them. The value orientation of respecting the elderly in the ten precepts is completely consistent with the Shipai Township Covenant. This change of the precepts and regulations reflects the moral values ​​of the Yao society. The Ten Precepts instill the values ​​​​of Yao society into the minds of masters through the sacred precept ceremony. This shows that religious belief is indeed a symbolic system through which Yao people express their ideas and ideals about social life and human existence, and This abstract concept is used to affirm the order of Yao society and comfort the individual’s psychology.

The Yao people’s teachings also have different content from the Taoist teachings, and some of the magic teachings have the characteristics of the Yao people’s religion. According to the “Wutai Sichuan Light Sing” sung by the master god of Shan Ziyao in Shiwandashan, Guangxi, the magic spells that the master should learn are the knife mountain method, the bed method, the plowshare method, the lamp method, and the Wutai method; and according to Shan Ziyao in Guangxi When the master god sings “Cai Wen Chuan Guang Sing”, the master has to pass ten kinds of magic, namely the Yunshan method (or “Yuntai method”), the knife mountain method, the salt port method, the bed method, the fire brick method, and the plow method. The head method, the oil pot method, the Yantang method, the Qiji method, and the Yangshan method, these ten kinds of witchcraft that are common among ethnic minorities in the south, are designed to make masters accept dangerous and painful tests. Now Shan Ziyao is being ordained by the master, and the master is only tested by the Yunshan method. The Yuntai is divided into seven grades of Tianguan Yuntai, fifth grade Yuntai of Earthly Officials, and third grade Yuntai of Shuiguan. They have different levels of the three senses of heaven, earth, and water, and have the connotation of the Taoist belief in the three senses of heaven, earth, and water. Through the symbolic performance of falling from the cloud platform, it means that the master has left the mortal world and become a fairy boy descending from the sky. Victor Turner, a master of American symbolic anthropology, once proposed the so-called “liminality” theory in his study of rituals. He believed that in the field of religion, it is necessary to enter a new realm or a new milestone. , you must go through a ritual. This ritual is like a threshold. After passing it, you can reach a new realm. The Yao people’s ordination ceremony is the threshold of the master’s life, and the Yuntai method can be said to be the key to the threshold. The religious significance of the master being tested by the Yuntai method is that the master’s soul will be resurrected after he falls off the cloud platform. This is no longer the original meaning. 人们。 There are no examples of this kind of teaching and testing of magic in Taoist classics and rituals. It can be considered as a religious magic that maintains the original cultural characteristics of the Yao ethnic group.

三、结论

The Yao people retain many Taoist elements in their ordination ceremony, which shows that the Yao people are deeply influenced by Taoism among the ethnic minorities in southern China. During the spread of Taoism to the ethnic minorities in the south, the ceremony of conferring religious rituals evolved into the Yao society. The long-lasting inheritance of the precept activities in Yao society has contributed to the Taoistization of Yao religion and is an important factor in the formation of the religious tradition of Yao society. The doctrinal thought of the early Zhengyi teachings became the theoretical basis for the Yao people to conduct ordination. The ten precepts of the Yao people’s moral code come from the ten precepts of Taoism. “Shiwan Dashan Shan Ziyao Social and Historical Survey” said: “Whether the precept activity was caused by the introduction of Taoism, or whether it developed from certain factors in the Yao society – such as the child adulthood ceremony that was popular among many ethnic groups. Or a combination of both? It remains to be further studied.” The preliminary investigation of this article can show that the Yao people’s ordination ceremony originated from the Taoist enshrinement ceremony. But unlike the Taoist teaching ritual, the Yao people’s ordination ceremony has the cultural significance of coming of age ceremony. This is the evolution of Taoist culture in the process of spreading in Yao people’s society. As a coming-of-age ceremony of the Yao people, the coming-of-age ceremony has different characteristics from the coming-of-age ceremonies of many ethnic groups in the world. During the ordination ceremony, Yao young people must experience the traditional education of national history and consciously abide by the teachings taught in the ordination ceremony. The ritual ceremony has the symbolic meaning of indicating the passing of the old stage and the coming of the new stage. The young Yao people who have experienced the ceremony have experienced qualitative changes in their religious and secular lives. Shi Nan is recognized as the true descendant of this ethnic group and has the secular right to elect and be elected as the leader of the village community (Yao Lao). The precepts not only make the master remember that he is an adult and have his responsibilities and obligations, but also tell him the role he should play after entering the adult stage and how to get along with others. This is a design with great anthropological significance. 。

The Yao people’s ordination is a life ritual with a strong religious color. In the early 20th century, Dutch scholar A. Van Gennep wrote “Life Rites” and called this ritual a “passing” ceremony. Without the help of this ritual, individuals and their associated communities will not easily move from the old stage of life to a new stage. The function of rituals is to enable individuals to successfully pass through the boundaries between various stages of life psychologically and interpersonally. This is the important significance of religious rituals in the stages of individual life. The ceremony of the precepts has the function of making the master adjust his psychology. The precepts change the social identity of the master, prompting him to modify his psychological behavior model to adapt to the adult responsibilities and obligations entrusted to him by the Yao society. This is what the precepts embody. The function of adapting to religious rituals. The fasting of master men in the Yao people’s ordination ceremony is actually a symbolic technique, using artificial isolation to represent the separation of life stages, so that the new and the old are no longer entangled, thus providing psychological preparation and buffering. This is The anthropological significance of the Yao people’s ordination. The Yao people’s ordination ceremony also has the function of integrating the Yao people’s society, which is enough to pass on the Taoist tradition of the Yao people’s society from generation to generation. American anthropologists E. Chapple and C. Coon believe that in addition to the significance of rituals to individuals, their role in the society as a whole should also be emphasized. Therefore, in addition to “rites of passage”, they The theory of “strengthening rituals” is further proposed to illustrate the importance of rituals in strengthening community relations and integrating social groups. In many cases, religious rituals can be used as a means to integrate the community. The Yao people’s ordination ceremony is not only a personal ceremony for the master, but also the whole village members become the object of the ceremony. The Yao people participate collectively to accept new members of society. Through the ordination ceremony, Religious ethics education has an obvious function of integrating Yao society.

When studying the Taoism of the Yao people, we should pay attention to the basic fact that the Yao people already had their own original religious beliefs before the introduction of Taoism. Yao Taoism is the product of the fusion of the original religion of the nation and Taoism. Therefore, Yao Taoism has different characteristics from orthodox Taoism, and it retains some contents of the Yao’s original religious beliefs. Among the ethnic minorities in southern China, the traditional religions of each ethnic group are influenced by Taoism to varying degrees, and the trend of Taoism in the traditional religion of the Yao people is most obvious. This article selects the Yao ethnic group with the strongest Taoist color as a case study to illustrate the exchange of religious culture among various ethnic groups in history, which promotes the commonality and identity of all ethnic groups at the level of belief, and promotes the cultural pattern of pluralism and unity of the Chinese nation. The formation of China has enhanced the centripetal force and cohesion of the Chinese nation.

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